Index of Articles

October 4, 1777: Battle of Germantown; the patriots fail to retake their capitol, Philadelphia


At the Battle of Germantown on October 4, 1777, British forces in Pennsylvania defeated the American Continental Army under General George Washington (1732-99). After capturing Philadelphia in September 1777, British General William Howe (1729-1814) placed a large group of his troops at nearby Germantown. Washington launched a surprise attack on the poorly defended British camp, but his army failed to … Continue reading


September 19, 1777: Battle of Freeman’s Farm


This was the first of two battles leading to the British surrender at Saratoga. General Burgoyne having reached the Hudson River from Canada, was now facing an American army at Bemis Heights, New York. A site selected for its defensive potential, just north of Stillwater and about 10 miles (16 km) south of Saratoga; the army spent about a week … Continue reading


September 11, 1777: Battle of Brandywine


General Sir William Howe and General Charles Cornwallis launched an attack on General George Washington at Brandywine Creek near Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania. Cornwallis and Howe each had 9,000 British troops, with Howe leading the attack from the front and Cornwallis circling around and attacking from the right flank. A dense fog had provided the British with cover, so Washington was … Continue reading


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